Back is the part of the body between the waist and the lower part of the neck. Back pain accompany many diseases. And so often, that the number of appeals to medical institutions take the second place after respiratory diseases.
Common causes of pain
What to do when back pain? Of course, consult a doctor. Treatment back do neurologists, orthopedists, General practitioners, chiropractic doctors. They find out the true cause of the disease, prescribe a course of treatment. The cause of the pain can be:
- ankylosing spondylitis (Bechterew's disease);
- intercostal neuralgia;
- congenital and acquired curvature of the spine – scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis;
- professional factors;
- long-term exercise with a back muscle strain;
- tumor metastases in the spine;
- pain gives back in some diseases of internal organs.
The main diseases that cause back pain, can be combined into several groups: degenerative, inflammatory, myofascial, rare disease. Separately considered pregnancy as a physiological condition of the body.
Degenerative diseases of the spine
Osteochondrosis and spondiloarthrosis is a frequent disease, accompanied by pain in the back. The reason lies in the pathological changes in various structures of the spine. Differences and similarities between two diseases the following:
|The name of the disease||The pain caused||Reasons|
|Osteochondrosis||Defeat of the cartilage, intervertebral disks, starting with the nucleus pulposus. Suffering of the body adjacent vertebrae with the formation of osteophytes, hernias.||Injuries, falls, physical and static load, age.|
|The faceted spondylosis or arthropathy||Dysfunction of the small (facet) of the vertebrae with the formation of bone growths. Degeneration of the fibrous ring of the intervertebral discs, ligaments pathology.||Low back pain, injury, exercise, posture and function of the foot.|
Sciatica, lumbago, intercostal neuralgia, radicular syndrome are synonyms of the same disease. It is a consequence of degenerative disc disease, complicated by hernia. Hernia irritate, compress nerve roots, causing tension and spasm of the intercostal muscles. As a consequence, there are severe pain in the lower back that can radiate into the legs. Not cured the disease leads to paresis. The patient feels "pins and needles, numbness, reduced sensitivity of the limb. Leg difficult to lift and straighten. Terrible pain when sitting, try to sit up or straighten the affected leg.
If you hurt your back due to degenerative disc disease or spondylarthrosis, you need to seriously hard to treat. In the initial stages, especially in young people, the disease is reversible. Otherwise, takes a chronic course with periods of exacerbations and remissions. Over time, the frequency of exacerbations will increase, and of pain back to grow.
He ankylosing spondylitis, chronic severe involvement of the joints of the spine. Has a genetic predisposition. Often affects young healthy men in the Prime of life. Sooner or later, the disease leads to disability. Spondylosis begins with changes in the discs. As the disease goes on the vertebrae, which are firmly bonded to each other by connective tissue to a fixed structure (a bamboo stick). The spine is fully transferred to the stationary state.
If you receive stiffness, dull pain back, you lose the flexibility of the spine, seek medical attention immediately. The development of the disease it is still possible to suspend and extend the time of physical activity.
As ankylosing spondylitis belongs to a group of nonspecific spondylosis. Occurs only after injury. The tragedy of the disease is that a traumatic pain will soon pass. The disease is "silent" for an indefinite time. The injured man considers himself completely healthy. The disease suddenly manifested necrotic changes of the vertebrae, fractures, frequent relapses, a terrible pain.
Specific and nonspecific inflammation of the spine, caused by different reasons. Specific spondylitis caused by:
- tuberculosis of the vertebrae (Pott's disease);
- intestinal, bruchnotifozna stick.
Diseases are accompanied by destruction of vertebral bodies with a very strong persistent pain of the back, a spinal deformity.
The name suggests that the disease affects the muscles and fascia of the back. Excessive muscle strain, injuries, posture, osteochondrosis in fascia and muscles are formed trigger point. It's a tight painful education in the form of lumps or strands. When pressed on the point and massage having severe pain.
Trigger zones are active and passive. Active areas are places of increased sensitivity and excitability of the muscles fascia. Sharply reacting to the slightest movement of the muscles. In passive areas the pain only appears after pressing.
Pneumonia, pleurisy cause aching back. Cardiac pain can radiate under the shoulder blade. Kidney disease accompanied by prolonged pain in the lower back, lower back. But for somatic diseases, besides pain, in the first place are the other symptoms. For example, in pneumonia, pleurisy, a cough, fever, shortness of breath, etc.
Pregnancy – physiological state of women, with frequent pains of the back. In the period of carrying a child the woman's body down to radical hormonal changes. Increases the load on all the organs of the system, including the spine. Changing emotional state of the pregnant woman.
Lower back pain in early pregnancy occur when the risk of miscarriage. They nagging, aching, sometimes cramping. Pain in the later stages is associated with increased load on the back muscles and spine. The woman changing posture, increased lumbar lordosis is another reason pain pregnant.
With the threat of miscarriage have a medical emergency. To reduce the load on the spine, wearing prenatal bandage. In this crucial period it is important to all, even the heel height, it should be small.
Benign and malignant, metastases to the spine at the adenoma of prostate, myeloma cause unbearable terrible pain of the spine and back.
Osteomyelitis of the spine
A rare disease caused by infection and inflammation of the vertebrae microbes: Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus. Affects different parts of the spine. Often develops in men after 40-50 years. The disease is acute pain in the affected Department, a high fever, intoxication.
Or osteodystrophy, occurs when the violation of the synthesis and restore of bone tissue. Appears on the background of autoimmune diseases, ankylosing spondylosis, fracture. Is characterized by fragility and increased fragility of the bones of the spine.
If back pain, it is necessary to fully screened. First, the doctor carefully examines the patient. Further diagnosis is based on clinical and instrumental indicators.
During the inspection it turns out the character of the pain, localization, time of occurrence at night, when you change body position during exercise, at rest, etc. is taken into account the presence of comorbidities that can provoke back pain, pneumonia, pleurisy, tumors, mental illness, back injury. Then there are other studies:
- biochemical and blood analysis;
- radiography in two projections;
- The spine CT – computer tomography;
- MRI of the spine – magnetic resonance imaging;
- bone scintigraphy – obtaining 2-dimensional images after administration of radioactive isotopes and other types of surveys.
Better painful the doctor knows what kinds of diagnostics to do. Sometimes to find out the cause of the disease, enough radiography. Sometimes resort to additional, more informative types of tests.
Depending on the type of disease and severity, select desired method of treatment – conservative or surgical. Patients with acute pain and severe course of the disease being treated in hospital, other outpatient. Surgery are very rare. Preference is given to conservative treatment that affects the underlying disease. When the pain is shown:
- non-steroidal drugs;
- synthetic adrenal hormones;
- muscle relaxants;
- synovial dentures.
Sharp pain shoot novocain blockades, injections of hydrocortisone, analgesics. Outside the aggravation shown ointments, massage, therapeutic exercise, physiotherapy, chiropractic and reflexology. Good idea to stay in the resort. To temporarily relieve the patient's spine, are of a special locking corsets.
The pain is not only a source of discomfort. In the initial period of the disease acts as a protective response, suggests that the body is wrong, and we need to take action.