Pain in lower back: causes of pain in lower part of the spine, what to do

Many people know the symptom "sore lower back". Usually the discomfort associated with various diseases of the spine, but in practice it often turns out that the cause of the other. Often pain in the lower back occurs in women late in pregnancy as the spine experiences more stress than usual.

The reason can also be various diseases in the internal organs, degenerative changes in the bone-cartilaginous apparatus lower back, etc. a Sedentary lifestyle, intense working conditions, professional sports, obesity can all cause pain in the lower part of the spine.

Lower back pain doctors call the term "lumbalgia". It is a common phenomenon, which is characterized by the sudden appearance and disappearance of the pain syndrome. Some patients undergo a short course of treatment and never experience discomfort, others have to get treatment for months and even years. To determine the exact cause of pain in lower back, need to be examined first by a physician, and then in his direction specialists.


Most often low back pain is a symptom of various diseases of musculoskeletal system. Often discomfort bother people who spend a lot of time at the computer, in the car, doing heavy physical labor, throwing yourself at the gym. The risk group includes pregnant women or women who recently gave birth.

Diseases accompanied by pain in the lower back

Back pain bottom can indicate diseases such as osteochondrosis or spondylosis. It's called the primary causes of pain associated with functional and morphological changes of the spine.

Among the secondary causes of lower back pain are:

  • neoplastic processes in the vertebrae, spinal cord;
  • injuries of the vertebrae;
  • the infectious process in the intervertebral discs and the vertebrae;
  • metabolic disorders in the bones (osteoporosis, osteomalacia);
  • inflammatory diseases of infectious etiology (rheumatoid arthritis, spondylitis);
  • acute hemodynamic instability (e.g., in stroke);
  • diseases associated with impaired growth;
  • gastrointestinal disease (atypical for acute appendicitis, intestinal obstruction);
  • kidney disease (urolithiasis pain behind unilateral, more often on the right side);
  • diseases of the pelvic organs.

Thus, the reason for the pain is not always rooted in the lesions of the musculoskeletal system. If the pain is caused by dysfunction of the internal organs, it is irradiating nature. In addition, in men back pain bottom of spine in chronic prostatitis, prostate cancer, although this symptom is not always required.

The pain can appear after a long walk that suggests spinal stenosis. The disease manifests itself in the form of a syndrome of intermittent claudication. People, in addition, complains of cramps and muscle pain when walking. The elderly developing the condition as a rheumatic polymyalgia. First, there is mild pain, then the feeling of stiffness in the hands or feet.

The most common cause of pain below the waist, right side, left side or center is low back pain. Instrumental methods of investigation help to identify the different degenerative changes in the spinal column. In them the space between the discs of the spine gradually decreases, resulting in the development of the imbalance in the structure of the entire spine.

This leads to lower back pain that are localized to the left or right or go in the course of the ridge.

Another source of lower back pain – the presence of intervertebral hernia. In case of their infringement, the compression of the nerve roots there is quite a strong, sharp pain that is in the initial stages help steroid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

A symptom of unfavourable outcome is lumbodynia, which is manifested by a range of symptoms. Pain along the nerve root can radiate into the buttocks and feet. Discomfort appears when bending (even when tilting the head down), laugh, cough, etc. Pain syndrome is worse when lifting lying on back straight leg.

Manifest as back pain

Symptoms back pain is diverse depending on the existing pathology. When stretched, the pain manifests itself in the form of spasms, while the movement is limited. Syndrome pain radiates to buttocks, back of thighs. It's hard to bend over to turn the case. If damaged roots give pain in the lower part of the body, may be disturbance of sensation, numbness.

Osteochondrosis symptoms increase gradually. At first, the pain bothers with one hand, her character is not expressed. With the development of pathological pain process becoming stronger, harder stoped pain, affect a large area. After a long stay in one position the pain is aching in nature.

If the kidney damage pain appears not in the lower back, approximately at the level of the 12th pair of ribs. However, in renal colic the pain radiates down syndrome, in the course of the ureter, gives to the groin. The pain is unbearable, very strong analgesics do not help. The characteristic symptom is a unilateral localization.


Why sore lower back, can be set only doctor. In no case should not engage in self-diagnosis and self-treatment. The diagnosis is based on patient complaints, clinical symptoms, anamnesis data, results of instrumental methods. Patient is prescribed x-rays, myelography, MRI, CT and other types of surveys.

Computed tomography is an efficient and highly informative method of revealing of various structural changes in the spine caused by trauma, infectious process, tumor formation, osteoporosis and other diseases. Based myelography is the use of contrasting substances. Method is used in cases of suspected spinal stenosis, hernia, tumors and other pathological processes in the spine.

x-ray of the back


What to do if back hurts, can say only by a qualified technician. Tactics of treatment depends on the underlying cause of pain. It is not recommended to use analgesics because they provide only a temporary effect (and in certain diseases of not help), "lubricate" the clinical picture and exacerbate the disease process what the person is constantly removing pain, delays the visit to the doctor.

The main principle of treatment – the treatment is not pain as such but its causes. So, osteochondrosis requires a range of measures. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in this disease are used as symptomatic therapy in the period of the swing. Such drugs include Diclofenac, Nimesulide etc., but they have a number of contraindications (eg, peptic ulcer).

Can also be applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory creams. In some cases, require steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. The main events are held in the period without exacerbation and are medical gymnastics, completion therapeutic massage, organization of the correct day regimen and nutrition.

Additionally appointed physiotherapy, acupuncture, chiropractic, etc. without exacerbation doctors recommend to do therapeutic exercises. This is the best way to strengthen your back, relieve tension and muscle spasm. Therapeutic physical exercises (physical therapy) is obligatory in the program of prevention of back pain.

Classes are best done under the supervision of the instructor, but some simple exercises it is possible to perform at home:

  • Lie on back, arms stretched along the body, legs slightly bent at the knee joints. Legs to deflect to the right in the body and head turn slightly to the left (the main thing – do not overdo it). After five seconds, return to starting position, repeat the same with the opposite side. A total of ten repetitions.
  • To get on my knees to lean on the chair. Arch your back upwards, then the maximum SAG. To do ten repetitions.
  • Lie on your back, straighten your legs. Raise right leg 20 cm above the floor, hold until fatigue. The same is done with the left foot. Do five repetitions for each leg.

Good effect gives massage and manual therapy. These procedures are performed only by a qualified technician. Improper execution of, a violation of the technician conduct can cause substantial harm. During a session of manual therapy of the hands of a specialist go through the entire back area, affecting different levels (fascia, bone structure, etc.).

Special attention is paid to the neural level. Specialist has a direct effect on neurons through palpatory manipulation. A chiropractor is able to slow down or speed up the neural chain. The recently growing popularity of acupuncture. The course consists of several procedures and is aimed at pain relief and muscle relaxation.

In the presence of excess weight should be diet. Preference should be given to herbal, low-calorie food. Proteins is one third of the daily diet. You can eat lean fish, poultry, meat, eggs. Also the protein contained in legumes, buckwheat, mushrooms, nuts (with them it is important not to overdo it). Fats should consume unsaturated (lamb, white fish, nuts, vegetable oils).

In diseases of the osteoarticular system, the important role played by vitamins a and D. Vitamin A is found in greens, onions, vegetables, orange and yellow colors, cod liver oil, liver, egg yolks. Vitamin D is synthesized under the influence of sunlight. It is also possible to obtain small amounts of milk, butter, egg yolks, cod liver, caviar. For bone health should consume adequate amount of phosphorus (bran, lettuce, cabbage, cheese, fish) and calcium (liver, cheese, eggs, nuts, cabbage).


In the presence of back pain is best to consult the therapist on the basis of the data collected will be determined with further tactics. The presence of diseases of internal organs the patient undergoes a number of additional studies and sent to specialists. The main rule, which should learn all patients not to self-medicate with any disease manifestations to promptly contact a specialist.