Low back pain causes, methods of diagnosis and treatment

Low back pain is a common symptom present in 80% of the population. Painful sensations in the lumbar region appear with physical damage to this part of the body or the progression of the disease. You cannot ignore the pain. This is one of the first symptoms of serious back problems. If you experience pain in the lumbar region, you need to contact a medical institution. The doctor of the clinic will diagnose and develop the optimal course of treatment.

lower back pain

Causes of back pain

Painful sensations develop when exposed to the following factors:

  • injury to the nerve roots leaving the spine in the lumbar region;
  • hernia in the lumbar spine;
  • impaired posture;
  • sciatica of the lower back;
  • ankylosing spondylitis;
  • genetic changes, for example, different lengths of the lower limbs;
  • osteochondrosis of the intervertebral type;
  • renal system diseases;
  • malignant neoplasm;
  • impaired metabolism;
  • arthritis;
  • inflammation around the blood vessel;
  • atherosclerotic lesion of the vascular channels of grade 3 and higher;
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • complication after surgery;
  • appendicitis, pain syndrome is localized in the right iliac region, can be given to the right side of the lower back;
  • inflammatory process of the pancreas;
  • overweight;
  • diseases of bone tissue of an infectious nature, characterized by acute painful sensations in the lumbar region.

In women, the following causes of back pain in the lumbar region are distinguished:

  • the process of carrying a child;
  • adnexitis, characterized by pain in the lower abdomen, which radiates to the lumbar region.
  • Men also have specific causes of painful sensations:
  • inflammatory process of the prostate gland;
  • epididymitis, localized in the groin area, pain may spread to the lumbar spine and lower extremities.

Types of back pain

There are several types of pain syndrome, depending on its duration:

Recurrent back pain

Discomfort and soreness disappear after elimination of the lesion and complete recovery of the patient. Pain in the kidney area develops with excessive physical exertion. Periodic painful sensations progress in the acute form of diseases of the internal organs.

Persistent back pain

Common causes of persistent pain:

  • disturbances in the work of the circulatory system in the lower extremities;
  • dystrophic process of bone tissue and cartilage;
  • inflammatory diseases of the spine and bones.

Less often, the permanent nature of painful sensations occurs when muscle tissue and internal organs are injured, which is explained by the onset of a dystrophic process. Modern medicine is unable to completely stop the destruction of bone tissue.

Diagnostic methods

Before prescribing medications and other procedures, doctors carry out diagnostics. Anamnesis is collected, the nature and localization of painful sensations are taken into account. Diagnostics involves the passage of an ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs, an X-ray of the spine, an endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract, the delivery of biochemical analyzes of blood cells and urine. If the lower back hurts, and the doctor suspects the development of a malignant neoplasm, the blood is examined for tumor markers.

In clinics, the following methods are used to accurately identify the causes of back pain:

Which doctor to contact

At the first signs of pain, make an appointment with an orthopedist or neurologist. The doctor will listen to complaints, examine them, send them for examination. Diagnose and prescribe effective treatment.

Low back pain treatment

After passing the diagnosis, the doctor draws up a course of treatment, which is complex in nature. Prescribed medications, physiotherapy procedures. If possible, manual therapy is used. With severe development of the disease that provoked pain in the lumbar region, surgery is prescribed. Depending on the severity of painful sensations, physical education may be prescribed or prohibited. With bright acute pain, the load is contraindicated.

In clinics, the following techniques are used to treat low back pain:


In the absence of therapy for back pain and the cause of the symptom, a number of complications develop:

  • painful sensations spread further, healthy tissues are affected;
  • the work of the cardiac and vascular system deteriorates;
  • in severe cases, paralysis of the upper and lower extremities is possible.

Prevention of back pain

To avoid the development of painful sensations in the lumbar region, the following recommendations should be followed:

  • for sleeping, use a mattress of medium hardness;
  • when sedentary work, do lumbar gymnastics once an hour;
  • avoid sudden body movements;
  • give up the use of alcoholic beverages, smoking, narcotic drugs;
  • physical education daily;
  • avoid hypothermia of the lumbar region;
  • sleep in the correct posture;
  • adhere to a balanced diet;
  • control posture;
  • avoid stressful situations;
  • timely treat inflammatory and infectious diseases;
  • in the event of painful sensations in the lumbar region, contact a medical institution for advice;
  • timely undergo preventive examinations to detect diseases of the lumbar spine.